Free VPN services – can they be trusted?

Privacy has now become quite a buzzword on the Internet. Even the most frequent users of web media become aware of the transmission of some personal data. However, you may not worry, because there are many ways, which you can use to increase the safety of your information.

The best variant for everyone to provide the safety is to use a virtual private network (VPN) to encrypt all incoming and outgoing data. So what is this Virtual Private Network? First of all, VPN allows you to connect the device to a virtual network, which in turn encrypts the transmitted information by hiding it from the public. A good VPN will keep a record of your browsing history, which means that you are an anonymous user. You may use your virtual private network to get the access to the sites that are not available in your region.

(more…)

Construction of single-storey buildings of metal structures and sandwich panels

Modular frame technology allows the construction of residential houses in the shortest time at a relatively low material consumption. We will look at typical instruction on construction with lightweight thermal profile and structural insulated panels.

Houses made of metal and SIP are pre-fabricated buildings. The reliability of this technology is not in question, but only if they meet two key rules.

First, prior to the construction of the entire complex of design and survey activities is made, drawing up specifications, detailed drawings, plans and sections of the building, describes how to build. This is the most difficult stage: largely due to lack of technical and regulatory documentation, you can be guided only by Eurocode EN 1993-1-3, describing work with pre-fabricated steel structures.

Second, in the assembly process whole list of technical requirements is made, the work is done by qualified personnel. We look at the key moments of the construction on the basis of LSTC, which will help to keep a detailed control over the actions of contractors or quickly to navigate in the industry rules, if the work is being done on their own.

Among all the types of foundations in the context of pre-fabricated steel structures we should seriously consider only three of them.

First – pile-and-crib work foundation, which has an ideal ratio of material consumption and load capacity. LSTC buildings is lightweight, even on weak and unstable soils, they show a good integrity and seismic resistance.

The main problem is reduced to the supporting piles in dense layer below the freezing depth. Usually, piles drilling depth isn’t less than 1.8-2.5 m. Grillage is performed with two reinforcement layers of protective lines at 35 mm. With angular anchering mortgages for rigid connection to the foundation with the chassis are added to the fixture.

A second suitable type is MZLF. It makes sense to organize, if necessary, the organization of the basement or underground garage. Casting Technology basement monolithic design is quite standard, in order to save materials foundations are casted with a cascading section or operate expansion at the bottom.

The third recommended by the foundation under the house on a metal frame serves as UWB. Its design is also quite standard, but the Swedish stove is justified only in the construction of passive houses. Another argument in favor of the warmed plates may be willing to arrange a warm floor system. Because of the small thickness and, consequently, low heat capacity of the plate, it is recommended to arrange heating by jet pipes.

The device is simple enough overlap. The main load with a small length of the I-beam spans perceive or thermo trough. At considerable length spans are replaced on a two-zone portal farm.

The space between the beams is filled mineral-cotton insulation after fixing hem profile and mounting of the rough ceiling. Then on the floor of the upper floor plank steel sheet, on which polystyrene screed is performed with light concrete polymer reinforcement.

Roofing system follows the same type as the wood construction. Rafters are collected from the rack or double-T thermal profile, crate perform by hatter profile section. It is important to make a reservation: in the construction of MK and LSTC can be combined with auxiliary elements of thermal profile should be based on a ponderous system, but not vice versa.

Casing frame made of metal is carried out predominantly structurally insulated panels. At the same time frame cavities provide an opportunity to arrange an additional layer of insulation, which is often performed by ecowool.

Piggott & Whitfield company is one of the leading manufacturers of metal structures, roof and facade materials in UK and all over the world and a leader in building services.

Discussing medical negligence from a legal standpoint

The problem of medical errors is one of the most important areas in medical law. The number of medical errors, unfortunately, is growing with years. For example, in the US, the number of victims of medical errors annually varies from 40 to 87 thousand people. In this regard medical errors kill less people than AIDS. By the most conservative estimates, the economic damage caused by medical mistakes each year in the United States is equivalent to the state budget of an average European economy. Thus, in the jurisprudence more and more medical malpractice cases are started (criminal and civil ones). Medical personnel is attracted to criminal liability, and medical clinics are suffering huge losses in the form of payments as compensation for non-pecuniary damage and harm caused to a patient. But in this chain a number of other organisations is also involved – insurance companies and pharmaceutical firms. The first ones are required to pay large sums to patients and then placing recourse action of medical institutions, which can be a beginning of the end for the medical facilities. Pharmaceutical companies, in turn, can also be held liable, for example in case of delivery of substandard pharmaceuticals.

From all this it follows that it is necessary to answer two important questions. The first one: what medical error? The second question is more complicated: which medical errors entail increased responsibility for the doctor, and which ones do not imply any increased responsibilities for the doctor? Defining a medical error is not a simple task. Plenty of literature offers a point of view that if a doctor has committed a medical error, there are already grounds for bringing, for example, a physician, to criminal liability. However, this may be a fundamentally wrong approach, compounded by the fact that, as a rule, the investigator and preliminary investigator, do not delve into the intricacies of medical practice, medical ethics and do not analyse the jurisprudence of this category of cases.

The fact is that so far neither the majority of medical nor law schools teach the fundamental courses of the application of medical law. All this leads to an incorrect legal qualification of acts, so judging the case on medical errors (especially criminal) is a tricky and a complicated process. The situation is sometimes corrected in the presence of legal counsel, having proper practice, for example, in the US, the UK and Germany there are law firms, employing lawyers specialising exclusively on medical and pharmaceutical law. According to SolicitorsGuru, one of the fastest growing legal services aggregators in the UK, there are 1753 results on medical negligence solicitors – a quite modest number for the country with 64ml. population and increasingly alarming tendencies of growth in the number of new cases (+5.6% in 2013 in comparison with the previous one). Many people who are seeking for professional help comes to a decision to not only win a case but not to pay large fees – there are details about no win no fee deals on the aforecited website. As we see, keeping in mind the increasing number of court approvals (just 37% of claims resolved without any damages paid), in practice the cases where medical personnel errors are justified are not that huge in percentage ratio.

Waterproof Paints: The Types & The Benefits

Plasterboard can be used in internally: in basements, attics or kitchens, as well as externally: in exterior walls, roofs, facades and etc. There’s a decent selection of options to choose from: latex, acrylic and even cement, each of them has its own degree of water protection, while the most innovative eco-friendly solutions, like Britannia’s exterior wall coatings even protect ensure absolute safety for residents. Using paints for finishing and repair work requires surface preparation prior to painting, aiming at masking defects of existing practically impossible. In any case, the coating wall paint is one of the most cost-effective finishing techniques.

One of the most popular options for the internal walls painting is latex-based, water-resistant paint. It leaves no odor, protects the surface from moisture, has a high vapor permeability, forms a strong flexible coating, tinting easily and dries quickly. The coating, which can be obtained using this dye can be matte, glossy and satin-matt.

Moisture-proof paint can be applied on concrete, plaster, wood, wallpaper and other surfaces, it hides cracks up to 1 mm well and provides dirt-resistant qualities. You may also want to consider antibacterial protection paints – the materials are gaining momentum in the recent years. Waterproof latex coating is resistant to abrasion and can withstand even brushing with a soft bristle brush. (more…)

Plasma use in effective disposal and its production capabilities

Plasma-chemical technology is primarily used for the processing of highly liquid and gaseous wastes. Thus, it is not only about hazardous waste disposal, but about the production of valuable commercial products. The process is carried out in the plasma torch by electric arc energy at a temperature above 3,000 – 4,000°C. At this temperature, oxygen, and any waste are cleaved to electrons, ions and radicals. The degree of decomposition of toxic waste reaches 99.9995%, and in some cases it rises up to 99,99998%. High energy costs and the complexity of the problems associated with plasma-chemical technology determine its application to processing only those waste types disposal of which does not meet environmental requirements.

plasma001The prospective application of a plasma method is processing waste in a reducing atmosphere to produce valuable commodity products. In modern economies the technology of pyrolysis of liquid organochlorine waste and reducing the low-temperature plasma, allowing to obtain acetylene, ethylene, hydrogen chloride and products based on them are added to the arsenal. Such companies as Simdean, a seasoned manufacturer focusing on innovative plasma waste disposal and industrial waste disposal methods, has launched the mass production of such plasma stations. According to the the company’s report published on September, 25 in 2014, the cost-effectiveness of the method is confirmed during the 2nd or 3rd year of utilisation, despite the huge investments needed for installation or modernisation of an enterprise (eco-friendliness and meeting certain standards plays a vital role here – this is where economical preferences matter). (more…)

Patenting & Legal Aspects Of Intellectual Property In UK

Plenty of intellectual property experts believe that patenting of software doesn’t encourage innovation, but significantly increases the transaction costs and fosters impassable obstacles.

In Europe, unlike Japan and the United States, creators meet more stringent requirements when it comes to software creation. So if the program or app brings a ‘technical contribution’ (controlled robot, optimisation of internal operations through integrating more efficient processes, etc.), then it can be the reason to obtain a patent, but if the program is designed for general application (‘non-technical program’), for example, if software carries out simple texts processing, the patents are not issued. ‘The cases are many, in some situations you are balancing between the two mediums’, a Manchester University UMIP branch (focused on intellectual property aspects) representative says.

Although the European Patent Office was originally based on the same principles as the Office of the UK Intellectual Property Rights, in recent years it is increasingly not grant patents on technical programs. In this regard, experts recommend that adhere to the British Office of their policies, and to try to convince our European colleagues to abandon the patenting of non-technical programs.

For the same reasons, patents are not granted on a variety of ‘business methods’ (such as marketing and pricing schemes); in Europe this form of patenting is not practised, although the in the United States the opposite approach is dominating.

Impact of duties on patent behavior

(more…)

Ball valves design and structure under the microscope

Technical progress is expanding the horisons of inventors and manufacturers of equipment, but at the same time confronts them with new challenges. That’s what happened with Orseal, a prominent UK-based manufacturer of ball valves and high-tech industrial industrial ball valves. The fact is that the principle of operation of the ball valve is not new – the history of this unit goes back to almost a hundred of years.

So how does the design of an item that does not lose its relevance for so long look like? The body of the ball valve represents, in fact, the pipe included in the pipeline infrastructure. Inside the housing there’s a locking element of spherical shape, rotatable up to 90°. The axis of the spherical lock has a through-hole; in most models, its diameter coincides with the diameter of the body (the so-called full bore valve). Ball valve or tube, surrounded by the sealing seats (ring), creating leaks and ensure smooth rotation of the ball. Operation mechanism of a ball valve can be either manual (in the simplest units) and automated. In the first case, a handle, in the second – the electric drive.

This simple design makes a good seal and minimum hydraulic losses, which is very important when transporting oil, gas and other hazardous industries. But the first ball valves could not boast of any of the absolute density of the closing passage, nor easy management. And only in recent years, after the advent of modern materials such as synthetic rubber and fluoropolymers it became possible to raise the production of ball valves to a new level.

(more…)

Raw materials in construction products manufacturing: lime in focus

Lime is a very important material that is largely used in the construction and repair industries. Lime is oftentimes added to various surface treatment solutions (e.g. whitewashing or restoration). The structure of this material consists mainly of calcium oxide. In case lime is used to whitewash or knead some solution, it would be required to slak it. Hydrated lime is obtained from the lump. Slaking means pouring the water and kneading it until it gets smooth. Lime is oftentimes classified into quick (the process takes up to eight minutes), moderate (the process takes up to 25 minutes) and slow (the process takes more than 30 minutes) types.

There are a few binders which relate to the hydraulic lime group. Lime itself represents a binder, which is used for the preparation of various solutions and widely used during the repair or construction works. Lime can be be lump or ground. For slaking ground lump is used as the hardening of this material takes place in the air after treatment with water. Slaked lime or hydrated lime is often added to the dry mixture to ensure protection from various pests. If lime is slaked in dough, it can be stored in for a very long time, and the quality of this dough gets even better.

(more…)

The Prospects Of Ultrasound Use In Molten Metal Processing

The presence of metals and their alloys in even hundredths and even thousandths of a percent gases and non-metallic impurities significantly reduces their strength and ductility. To purify metal from unwanted impurities gases, oxides, nitrides, and other non-metallic inclusions a set of technological operations that can be combined under the term of refining is developed. The process of refining is an absolutely vital part of improving the quality of metals and alloys.

Purification of the liquid metal from non-metallic inclusions is to separate the melt surface tiny gas bubbles and particles of oxides, nitrides, sulfides, and other compounds which normally remain in the melt and fall into an ingot. In recent years, combined methods for refining are gaining momentum – physical and adsorptive methods are meant. Absorptive refining method implies introducing inert or reactive gases into the melt to have impurities decomposed into gaseous products. Due to the low pressure gas within these bubbles is diffused in the dissolved metal hydrogen, nitrogen, and other gases and bubbles are adsorbed on the surface of the solid particles of nonmetallic inclusions. After achieving considerable size bubbles refining agents resurfacing molten metal. For sufficiently complete removal of non-metallic inclusions from the melt must pass through metal refining a large number of substances, which is not always appropriate and feasible.

Physical refining methods, e.g. vacuuming, require additional equipment and time to process metal.

(more…)

The main types of tools in online marketing

Online marketing offers numerous ways to squeeze the most of your business. But to use them efficiently you need to be aware of the fundamentals – the topic that we’ll focus on today. The article is sponsored by our fellow marketing gurus – HTP Digital, a savvy digital marketing Manchester firm with years of experience under the belt.

Search engine optimization and promotion

SEO gathers every effort aimed at promotion of the site in search engines for the needs of interest to your business. First of all, the optimisation of the site – the adjustment of its structure, HTML-code navigation and content in a way that the resource is the most convenient and informative for visitors, and well indexed by search engines. Actually promotion is to increase the external reference weight and the regular analysis and review of the key queries that the optimization. From the point of view of efficiency of SEO – a reasonable price in financial terms, it gives lasting and stable effect, but also requires a lot of time and effort.

Contextual advertising

A special type of ads that appear with search results (or above) when you type the corresponding keyword and at websites in ad spaces. Contextual advertising can also be used with the involvement of other areas with relatively high attendance. The main point here is that you can really fine-tune the display of your ad on several parameters: the keywords, the region, the time of day and days of the week. Thus, contextual advertising is ideal in case you need to reach a well-defined audience, and for a certain period. Unlike SEO, contextual advertising can be started very quickly, it is precisely controlled (including – the terms of cost), but terminates immediately after shutdown. This activity is recommended to be evenly distributed to fit in the budget range of content production and search promotion. (more…)