patenting-IP

Patenting & Legal Aspects Of Intellectual Property In UK

Plenty of intellectual property experts believe that patenting of software doesn’t encourage innovation, but significantly increases the transaction costs and fosters impassable obstacles.

In Europe, unlike Japan and the United States, creators meet more stringent requirements when it comes to software creation. So if the program or app brings a ‘technical contribution’ (controlled robot, optimisation of internal operations through integrating more efficient processes, etc.), then it can be the reason to obtain a patent, but if the program is designed for general application (‘non-technical program’), for example, if software carries out simple texts processing, the patents are not issued. ‘The cases are many, in some situations you are balancing between the two mediums’, a Manchester University UMIP branch (focused on intellectual property aspects) representative says.

Although the European Patent Office was originally based on the same principles as the Office of the UK Intellectual Property Rights, in recent years it is increasingly not grant patents on technical programs. In this regard, experts recommend that adhere to the British Office of their policies, and to try to convince our European colleagues to abandon the patenting of non-technical programs.

For the same reasons, patents are not granted on a variety of ‘business methods’ (such as marketing and pricing schemes); in Europe this form of patenting is not practised, although the in the United States the opposite approach is dominating.

Impact of duties on patent behavior

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Ball valves design and structure under the microscope

Technical progress is expanding the horisons of inventors and manufacturers of equipment, but at the same time confronts them with new challenges. That’s what happened with Orseal, a prominent UK-based manufacturer of ball valves and high-tech industrial industrial ball valves. The fact is that the principle of operation of the ball valve is not new – the history of this unit goes back to almost a hundred of years.

So how does the design of an item that does not lose its relevance for so long look like? The body of the ball valve represents, in fact, the pipe included in the pipeline infrastructure. Inside the housing there’s a locking element of spherical shape, rotatable up to 90°. The axis of the spherical lock has a through-hole; in most models, its diameter coincides with the diameter of the body (the so-called full bore valve). Ball valve or tube, surrounded by the sealing seats (ring), creating leaks and ensure smooth rotation of the ball. Operation mechanism of a ball valve can be either manual (in the simplest units) and automated. In the first case, a handle, in the second – the electric drive.

This simple design makes a good seal and minimum hydraulic losses, which is very important when transporting oil, gas and other hazardous industries. But the first ball valves could not boast of any of the absolute density of the closing passage, nor easy management. And only in recent years, after the advent of modern materials such as synthetic rubber and fluoropolymers it became possible to raise the production of ball valves to a new level.

The advantages of ball valves

Constructive simplicity and principle of operation is based on the basic physical laws, minimizing the likelihood of irregularities in the operation of the device. The system operates smoothly, because all the processes are coordinated and do not imply the possibility of failures.

The high degree of tightness of stop and control valves. Ball tube is attached to the O-rings. The pipe diameter of 200 mm is sufficient for creating a pressure inside the faucet. Ball valves 200 mm diameter include not only support, but also protrusion to minimise energy costs.

The compact size of the ball valve allows it to be deployed in urban piping network water and gas. If you want to reduce the size of still and/or torque control valve, you can order and install the so-called tapered ball valve.

Minimum hydraulic losses. In the fully open position tap liquid medium flows therethrough in the same way as through any other part of the pipeline. This means that the energy density is practically not lost due to friction.

Management of small diameter ball valve can be manual or automated. Large industrial ball valves are controlled by an electric pneumatic and / or hydraulic drive, including using the fluid as control medium.

Rotating locking stopper of 90° or less occurs rapidly and smoothly, due to plastic materials from which O-rings are made of. The hole passes ball plugs liquids and gases without the formation of breakout and/or stagnation zones.

These valuable properties allow the use of ball valves is in contrast to other types of valves, during transportation of specific environments and products, including contaminated, viscous, heterogeneous, consisting of two or more phases.

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Raw materials in construction products manufacturing: lime in focus

Lime is a very important material that is largely used in the construction and repair industries. Lime is oftentimes added to various surface treatment solutions (e.g. whitewashing or restoration). The structure of this material consists mainly of calcium oxide. In case lime is used to whitewash or knead some solution, it would be required to slak it. Hydrated lime is obtained from the lump. Slaking means pouring the water and kneading it until it gets smooth. Lime is oftentimes classified into quick (the process takes up to eight minutes), moderate (the process takes up to 25 minutes) and slow (the process takes more than 30 minutes) types.

There are a few binders which relate to the hydraulic lime group. Lime itself represents a binder, which is used for the preparation of various solutions and widely used during the repair or construction works. Lime can be be lump or ground. For slaking ground lump is used as the hardening of this material takes place in the air after treatment with water. Slaked lime or hydrated lime is often added to the dry mixture to ensure protection from various pests. If lime is slaked in dough, it can be stored in for a very long time, and the quality of this dough gets even better.

The process of slaking

The process of clearing should be carried out in the open, ventilated place. To make powder lime, it is necessary to take a ton of lime hundred liters of water. If you use either pits or boxes, it is necessary to adjust the amount of materials beforehand. However, the process of getting hydrated lime takes different amounts of time – depending on how slaking occurs.

Hydrated lime application

The properties of hydrated lime are so extensive, that it has been applied in many areas, such as:

  • Whitewashing
  • Protection from decay and of wooden fences and rafters.
  • Preparation of mortars.
  • Preparation of silicate concrete.
  • Mitigation of water – to remove carbonate hardness.
  • Production of bleach.
  • Production of lime fertiliser.
  • Formation of various compounds of calcium as well as for neutralising acid solutions, organic acids, etc.
  • Production of E526 food additive.
  • For the preparation of the lime water – solution of calcium hydroxide, which is used to detect carbon dioxide.
  • Preparation of lime milk to be used for the preparation of sugar and cooking.
  • Disinfection of dental root canals.

Construction works – even the huge UK companies, like Telling Co (a far-famed construction agency) largely shift to hydraulic lime and lime mortar.

Slaked lime and lime putty

Lump lime is a crude product which, after quenching, is used in a mixture of hydrated lime or test. Hydrated lime mixture is obtained after quenching quicklime with certain amount of waters, whereupon the mixture becomes a liquid, as the oxides of calcium and magnesium transferred into hydrates. Lime paste is obtained from slaked lime and a small amount of water, after which it turns in doughy mass.

In the manufacture of hydrated lime and lime putty water is used. In both cases manipulation of the lime must be slaked – processed with water to the collapse occurred pieces of lime. Thus, the smaller decay pieces are, the more valuable the final product is.

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Kopie von UIP1000 with FC100L1K-1S, ST2 and pump_1

The Prospects Of Ultrasound Use In Molten Metal Processing

The presence of metals and their alloys in even hundredths and even thousandths of a percent gases and non-metallic impurities significantly reduces their strength and ductility. To purify metal from unwanted impurities gases, oxides, nitrides, and other non-metallic inclusions a set of technological operations that can be combined under the term of refining is developed. The process of refining is an absolutely vital part of improving the quality of metals and alloys.

Purification of the liquid metal from non-metallic inclusions is to separate the melt surface tiny gas bubbles and particles of oxides, nitrides, sulfides, and other compounds which normally remain in the melt and fall into an ingot. In recent years, combined methods for refining are gaining momentum – physical and adsorptive methods are meant. Absorptive refining method implies introducing inert or reactive gases into the melt to have impurities decomposed into gaseous products. Due to the low pressure gas within these bubbles is diffused in the dissolved metal hydrogen, nitrogen, and other gases and bubbles are adsorbed on the surface of the solid particles of nonmetallic inclusions. After achieving considerable size bubbles refining agents resurfacing molten metal. For sufficiently complete removal of non-metallic inclusions from the melt must pass through metal refining a large number of substances, which is not always appropriate and feasible.

Physical refining methods, e.g. vacuuming, require additional equipment and time to process metal.

The power of ultrasound

The use of ultrasound for the impact of a number of processes in the preparation and processing of metals and alloys is sufficiently well known and theoretically justified. Currently, ultrasonic methods of influencing interfacial surface metals in the liquid and solid state have acquired significant commercial importance due to the industry innovators like Hilsonic, providing a range of cost-effective ultrasonic cleaner equipment.

A significant number of published studies on the effects of ultrasound on metal melts demonstrates that ultrasound treatment is one of the most promising ways to regulate properties of the solid. These works consider mainly the possibility of using ultrasound during solidification of the melt. However, implementation of this method in the method of manufacturing products directly from the melt prevents a number of circumstances. Additionally, scoring to complete crystallization requires input of ultrasonic vibrations directly into the molded part, but this is not always feasible.

The most reasonable and promising way to improve the properties and structure of the products is the ultrasonic treatment of the liquid metal. Ultrasonic treatment of steels and other alloys studied to a lesser extent. One reason for the lack of studies of the effect of the ultrasonic field at the molten steel is the lack of reliable and efficient devices operating at high temperatures, as well as methods for administering ultrasound directly in the liquid metal.

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The main types of tools in online marketing

Online marketing offers numerous ways to squeeze the most of your business. But to use them efficiently you need to be aware of the fundamentals – the topic that we’ll focus on today. The article is sponsored by our fellow marketing gurus – HTP Digital, a savvy digital marketing Manchester firm with years of experience under the belt.

Search engine optimization and promotion

SEO gathers every effort aimed at promotion of the site in search engines for the needs of interest to your business. First of all, the optimisation of the site – the adjustment of its structure, HTML-code navigation and content in a way that the resource is the most convenient and informative for visitors, and well indexed by search engines. Actually promotion is to increase the external reference weight and the regular analysis and review of the key queries that the optimization. From the point of view of efficiency of SEO – a reasonable price in financial terms, it gives lasting and stable effect, but also requires a lot of time and effort.

Contextual advertising

A special type of ads that appear with search results (or above) when you type the corresponding keyword and at websites in ad spaces. Contextual advertising can also be used with the involvement of other areas with relatively high attendance. The main point here is that you can really fine-tune the display of your ad on several parameters: the keywords, the region, the time of day and days of the week. Thus, contextual advertising is ideal in case you need to reach a well-defined audience, and for a certain period. Unlike SEO, contextual advertising can be started very quickly, it is precisely controlled (including – the terms of cost), but terminates immediately after shutdown. This activity is recommended to be evenly distributed to fit in the budget range of content production and search promotion. (more…)

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